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There are a variety of liver diseases caused by liver inflammation, scarring of the liver, infection of the liver, gallstones, cancer, toxins, genetic diseases, and blood flow problems. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. It is typically the severe sore throat that prompts people to contact their doctor. The fatigue associated with the condition may persist for a few months after the fever and other symptoms have resolved. In some cases, people who have mono get secondary infections such as strep throat, sinus infections, or tonsillitis. Rachel is a Nurse Practitioner with experience working as a high school teacher, skin surgery center, and as a family NP. hypersplenism. Learn more about causes and treatments. 14 Things to Know, young people between the ages of 15 and 30, staying hydrated, ideally by drinking water, boosting your immune system by eating foods that are anti-inflammatory and rich in antioxidants, such as leafy green vegetables, apples, brown rice, and salmon, using OTC pain medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), complications that involve the nervous system, such as, swollen tonsils that can obstruct breathing. Many patients infected with hepatitis A, B, and C have few or no symptoms of illness. EBV can stay in your saliva for months after you’re infected, so even if you don’t have symptoms or feel sick, you may be able to spread it. 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Because children may only have mild symptoms, such as a sore throat, a mono infection may go undiagnosed. Learn the definition of a virus. Erythema nodosum can resolve on its own in three to six weeks, leaving a bruised area. He has a master's degree in Physics and is pursuing his doctorate study. [2][59][60], The characteristic symptomatology of infectious mononucleosis does not appear to have been reported until the late nineteenth century. The incubation period may be shorter in young children. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Find out what to expect and what the results mean. [30] However, it can cause life-threatening illness in infants, people with HIV, transplant recipients, and those with weak immune systems. In rare cases, some people may develop the following complications: You should wait at least 1 month before doing any vigorous activities, lifting heavy objects, or playing contact sports to avoid rupturing your spleen, which may be swollen from the infection. otherwise known as the kissing desiaes. [6], While usually caused by Epstein–Barr virus, also known as human herpesvirus 4, which is a member of the herpesvirus family,[3] a few other viruses may also cause the disease. bacterial infections, viral infections, toxins, irritants, This article focuses specifically on the Epstein-Barr virus as a cause of mono since this is the characteristic virus associated with the condition. Upon checking, the doctor found out that his tonsils are reddish and slightly swollen. Cortisone medication is occasionally given for the treatment of severely swollen tonsils or throat tissues that threaten to obstruct breathing. [citation needed], Acute HIV infection can mimic signs similar to those of infectious mononucleosis, and tests should be performed for pregnant women for the same reason as toxoplasmosis. [26] The main symptoms may be preceded by 1–2 weeks of fatigue, feeling unwell and body aches. It’s also called mono or “the kissing disease.” You can get the virus through kissing as well as things like sharing drinks or silverware. It can be fatal, not necessarily through infecting the liver but through rupture of enlarged spleen or obstruction of the throat, or through the development of cancer (e.g. [34], When the infection is acute (recent onset, instead of chronic), heterophile antibodies are produced. Most people have mono only once. These initial symptoms can last from one to three days before the more intense symptoms of the illness begin. All rights reserved. Lab tests are the second part of a doctor’s diagnosis. Ampicillin (Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen) and amoxicillin (Amoxil, DisperMox, Trimox) should be avoided if there is a possibility of mono since up to 90% of patients with mono develop a rash when taking these medications. EBV establishes a lifelong, inactive infection in your body’s immune system cells. Baltimore, 1920;31:410-417. The infection commonly known as 'mono' is officially termed infectious mononucleosis, and is an illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. The symptoms of mono rarely last for more than 4 months. Create an account to start this course today. Most people who get mono feel better in about 2 to 4 weeks. If someone who has mono uses an object like a fork or spoon, the virus is probably still contagious as long as the object is still moist. In adolescents and adults, the infection sometimes doesn’t cause noticeable symptoms. Things that may help you feel better include: There’s no vaccine to prevent mono. It lasts for 4 to 6 weeks. We rounded up…, Technically, yes, mono can be considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It generally resolves on its own as the condition improves. Many people develop EBV infections as children after age 1. Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). A minority of cases of infectious mononucleosis is caused by human cytomegalovirus (CMV), another type of herpes virus. In children, the virus typically causes no symptoms, and the infection often goes unrecognized. The swollen, tender lymph nodes generally subside by the third week. Fortunately, the more severe complications of mono are quite rare, and mono is very rarely fatal in healthy people. She has no other outstanding medical history. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. The enlarged spleen is susceptible to rupture, which can be life-threatening. They may need to avoid some physical activities while they recover. The virus is spread through saliva, which is why some people refer to it as “the kissing disease.”. It’s unusual, but you can get mono from medical procedures such as blood transfusions and organ transplants, or through sexual contact. Viral infections like COVID-19 can occur in your eyes, mouth, skin, or anywhere else. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 79,000 However, EBV is probably not the only cause. There are no specific medications to target infectious mononucleosis. The more common intense symptoms include. If you are experiencing the symptoms of mono and have had it before, see your doctor. Mono is hard to distinguish from other common viruses such as the flu. As previously discussed, the majority of people have become infected with the virus by the time that they reach adulthood, and the majority of these infections produce no symptoms and are not recognized as mono. To lower your chances of getting mono, wash your hands often and try not to share things like drinks, silverware, or toothbrushes with other people. [45][46] Intravenous corticosteroids, usually hydrocortisone or dexamethasone, are not recommended for routine use but may be useful if there is a risk of airway obstruction, a very low platelet count, or hemolytic anemia. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. How Do Aqueous Solutions of Ionic & Molecular Compounds Differ? produce an extremely painful sore throat. If mono returns, the virus is in your saliva, but you probably won’t have any symptoms unless you have a weakened immune system. The EBV can infect anyone. Get a better understanding of the risk of mono relapse. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | What Leads to White Spots on the Tonsils? One of the most reliable ways to diagnose mononucleosis is the monospot test (or heterophile test). Discover how mononucleosis (mono) is caused by the Epstein Barr virus.

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